Aplicação de polímeros biorreabsorvíveis em medicina cardiovascular

Main Article Content

Carlos Eduardo Brantis de Carvalho
Lucas Tiezi Oliveira
Ricardo Cadam Luz
Eduardo Josó Caetano Vanoni
Milena Gonçalves Guerreiro
Lucas Francisco Clemente Camara
Wiltron Rogerio Lustri

Resumo

Biopolímeros são polímeros produzidos por várias espécies de organismos vivos incluindo microrganismos ou, até́ mesmo, obtidos sinteticamente. Os biopolímeros, quando comparados aos polímeros sintéticos, apresentam algumas vantagens, como estruturas bem definidas e de maior complexidade, degradabilidade e reciclabilidade, que determinam vantagens em seu uso. Seu emprego industrial é amplo e compreende materiais médicos, embalagens, cosméticos, aditivos para alimentos, tecidos, produtos para tratamento de água, plásticos de emprego industrial, absorventes, biossensores e dispositivos de armazenamento de dados. Neste cenário, diversos biopolímeros vêm sendo aplicados na medicina no preparo de implantes para reparo e substituição de ossos, olhos, orelhas, articulações de joelhos e quadril e, com destaque, para a confecção de implantes cardiovasculares como stents e valvas cardíacas. Dentre os diversos biopolímeros existentes, os polímeros biodegradáveis de poliésteres estão entre os mais utilizados na confecção de aparatos médicos, dentre os quais, destacam-se os derivados de Ácido poliláctico (PLA), Ácido Poliláctico-co-glicólico Poli-4-hidroxibutirato (P4HB), os quais, devidas as suas características de mecânicas e de biocompatibilidade e permitem um alto grau de modificações e seletividade para a produção de artigos médicos. Ainda, com os avanços científicos das últimas décadas, blendas diversas e modificações em sua estrutura/composição contornaram seus principais atributos adversos como a hidrofobicidade e a baixa adesão celular. Assim sendo, um volume substancial de pesquisas científicas vem sendo realizado para conferir aos poliésteres características específicas e distintas daquelas já comercialmente disponíveis. Esta revisão objetivou a produção, biocompatibilidade e na utilização de polímeros biodegradáveis preparados a partir de Ácido Polilático (PLA) e Poli-4-hidroxibutirato (P4HB), assim como em suas blendas com outros polímeros, na manufatura de stents e de substitutos para valvas cardíacas. 

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Brantis de Carvalho, C. E., Oliveira, L. T., Luz, R. C., Vanoni, E. J. C., Guerreiro, M. G., Camara, L. F. C., & Lustri, W. R. (2022). Aplicação de polímeros biorreabsorvíveis em medicina cardiovascular . Revista Brasileira Multidisciplinar, 25(1). Recuperado de https://revistarebram.com/index.php/revistauniara/article/view/1053
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