Main Article Content
Rotavirus infection, which is directly related to the population’s quality of life, can culminate in death, mainly of children. This review discusses the prevalence and distribution of rotavirus genotypes, focusing on the genotypic variation of the virus after vaccines were implemented and cross-infection between animal and human species took place. We conducted a search of the literature from January 2006 to July 2017 by using the Web of Knowledge database and the search terms “rotavirus”, “genotype”, “prevalence post vaccine”, and “emerging genotypes”. The predominant genotypes changed in all the continents, and some genotypes are still emerging. There are two hypotheses for this global change: the genetics of the virus is variable, and vaccine-resistant genotypes have emerged. In addition, the virus can easily infect several animal species other than humans, as evidenced by reports of cross-infection of strains, which have served as a warning that new virus genotypes have been generated. Inter-sectoral actions that encompass not only the health sector, but also all the socio-economic sector including the government, researchers, teachers, health agents, and communities have contributed to reducing the health-related costs and mortality due to rotavirus infection, thereby improving health indicators and promoting health worldwide.
- O(s) autor(es) autoriza(m) a publicação do artigo na revista;
• O(s) autor(es) garante(m) que a contribuição é original e inédita e que não está em processo de avaliação em outra(s) revista(s);
• A revista não se responsabiliza pelas opiniões, ideias e conceitos emitidos nos textos, por serem de inteira responsabilidade de seu(s) autor(es);
• É reservado aos editores o direito de proceder ajustes textuais e de adequação do artigo às normas da publicação.
Os conteúdos da Revista Brasileira Multidisciplinar – ReBraM estão licenciados sob uma Licença Creative Commons 4.0 by.
Qualquer usuário tem direito de:
- Compartilhar — copiar, baixar, imprimir ou redistribuir o material em qualquer suporte ou formato.
- Adaptar — remixar, transformar, e criar a partir do material para qualquer fim, mesmo que comercial.
De acordo com os seguintes termos:
- Atribuição — Você deve dar o crédito apropriado, prover um link para a licença e indicar se mudanças foram feitas. Você deve fazê-lo em qualquer circunstância razoável, mas de maneira alguma que sugira ao licenciante a apoiar você ou o seu uso.
- Sem restrições adicionais — Você não pode aplicar termos jurídicos ou medidas de caráter tecnológico que restrinjam legalmente outros de fazerem algo que a licença permita.
Autores concedem à ReBraM os direitos autorais, com o trabalho simultaneamente licenciado sob a Licença Creative Commons 4.0 by. , que permite o compartilhamento do trabalho com reconhecimento da autoria e publicação inicial nesta revista.
AGBEMABIESE, C. A. et al. Genomic constellation and evolution of Ghanaian G2P rotavirus strains from a global perspective. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 45, p. 122–131, 2016.
AL-AYED, M. S. Z. et al. Epidemiology of group A rotavirus infection after the introduction of monovalent vaccine in the National Immunization Program of Saudi Arabia. Journal of Medical Virology, v. 89, n. 3, p. 429–434, 2016.
ALI, Z. et al. Rotavirus Genotypes and Vaccine Effectiveness from a Sentinel, Hospital-Based, Surveillance Study for Three Consecutive Rotavirus Seasons in Lebanon. PLOS ONE, v. 11, n. 8, p. e0161345, 2016.
AMBROSINI, V. A.; CARRARO, E. Impacto da vacinação contra rotavírus no Brasil. Medicina (Ribeirao Preto. Online), v. 45, n. 4, p. 411–418, 2012.
ANCA, I. A. et al. Hospital-based surveillance to estimate the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis in children below five years of age in Romania. GERMS, v. 4, n. 2, p. 30–40, 2014.
ASADA, K. et al. Rotavirus vaccine and health-care utilization for rotavirus gastroenteritis in Tsu City, Japan. Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal, v. 7, n. 4, p. 28–36, 2016.
AYRES, J. R. DE C. M. Epidemiologia, promoção da saúde e o paradoxo do risco. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, v. 5, n. suppl 1, p. 28–42, 2002.
BABJI, S. et al. Genotype distribution of Group A rotavirus from southern India, 2005–2016. Vaccine, v. 36, n. 51, p. 7816–7819, 2018.
BALL, J. M. et al. Age-Dependent Diarrhea Induced by a Rotaviral Nonstructural Glycoprotein. Science, v. 272, n. 5258, p. 101–104, 1996.
BOWEN, M. D. et al. Rotavirus Strain Trends During the Postlicensure Vaccine Era: United States, 2008–2013. Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 214, n. 5, p. 732–738, 2016.
CARVALHO-COSTA, F. A. et al. The evolving epidemiology of rotavirus A infection in Brazil a decade after the introduction of universal vaccination with Rotarix®. BMC Pediatrics, v. 19, n. 1, 2019.
CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION. Rotavirus Vaccine for the Prevention of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Among Children Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). [s.l.] Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), 1999.
Disponível em: <https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00056669.htm>. Acesso em: 24 out. 2019.
CHETRIT, E. et al. Group a Rotaviruses in Children with Gastroenteritis in a Canadian Pediatric Hospital: The Prevaccine Era. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, v. 24, n. 1, p. e1–e6, 2013.
CHITAMBAR, S. D. et al. Changing trends in circulating rotavirus strains in Pune, western India in 2009–2012: Emergence of a rare G9P rotavirus strain. Vaccine, v. 32, p. A29–A32, 2014.
CHUNG, J.-Y. et al. Detection of Rotavirus Genotypes in Korea 5 Years after the Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccines. Journal of Korean Medical Science, v. 30, n. 10, p. 1471–1475, 2015.
CIARLET, M. et al. Initial Interaction of Rotavirus Strains with N-Acetylneuraminic (Sialic) Acid Residues on the Cell Surface Correlates with VP4 Genotype, Not Species of Origin. Journal of Virology, v. 76, n. 8, p. 4087–4095, 2002.
COLLINS, P. J. et al. Changing patterns of rotavirus strains circulating in Ireland: Re-emergence of G2P and identification of novel genotypes in Ireland. Journal of Medical Virology, v. 87, n. 5, p. 764–773, 2015.
COSTA, P. S. S. et al. Rotavirus A infections and reinfections: genotyping and vaccine implications. Jornal de Pediatria, v. 80, n. 2, p. 119–122, 2004.
DAVIDSON, G. P.; BARNES, G. L. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL ABNORMALITIES OF THE SMALL INTESTINE IN INFANTS AND YOUNG CHILDREN WITH ROTAVIRUS ENTERITIS. Acta Paediatrica, v. 68, n. 3, p. 181–186, 1979.
DENNEHY, P. H. Rotavirus Infection: An Update on Management and Prevention. Advances in Pediatrics, v. 59, n. 1, p. 47–74, 2012.
DHAMA, K. et al. Rotavirus diarrhea in bovines and other domestic animals. Veterinary Research Communications, v. 33, n. 1, p. 1–23, 2008.
DO, L. P. et al. Molecular epidemiology ofRotavirus A, causing acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations among children in Nha Trang, Vietnam, 2007-2008: Identification of rare G9P and G10P strains. Journal of Medical Virology, v. 89, n. 4, p. 621–631, 2016.
DÓRÓ, R. et al. Review of global rotavirus strain prevalence data from six years post vaccine licensure surveillance: Is there evidence of strain selection from vaccine pressure? Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 28, n. 1, p. 446–461, 2014.
ESTES, M. K.; KAPIKIAN, A. Z. Rotaviruses. In: Fields virology. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007. p. 1918–1974.
FISCHER, T. K. et al. Hospitalizations and Deaths from Diarrhea and Rotavirus among Children <5 Years of Age in the United States, 1993–2003. The Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 195, n. 8, p. 1117–1125, 2007.
FORD-JONES, E. L. Rotavirus-Associated Diarrhea in Outpatient Settings and Child Care Centers. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, v. 154, n. 6, p. 586–593, 2000.
FUJII, Y. et al. Study of Complete Genome Sequences of Rotavirus A Epidemics and Evolution in Japan in 2012–2014. Frontiers in Microbiology, v. 10, p. 1–11, 2019.
GIAMBIAGI, S. et al. A rearranged genomic segment 11 is common to different human rotaviruses. Archives of Virology, v. 136, n. 3–4, p. 415–421, 1994.
GRAHAM, K. L. et al. Integrin-Using Rotaviruses Bind 2 1 Integrin 2 I Domain via VP4 DGE Sequence and Recognize X 2 and V 3 by Using VP7 during Cell Entry. Journal of Virology, v. 77, n. 18, p. 9969–9978, 2003.
GRAY, J. Rotavirus vaccines: safety, efficacy and public health impact. Journal of Internal Medicine, v. 270, n. 3, p. 206–214, 2011.
GUERRA, S. F. S. et al. Detection of a novel equine-like G3 rotavirus associated with acute gastroenteritis in Brazil. Journal of General Virology, v. 97, n. 12, p. 3131–3138, 2016.
GUPTA, S. et al. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of group A rotavirus in acute diarrhea patients in pre-vaccination era in Himachal Pradesh, India. Vaccine, v. 37, n. 36, p. 5350–5356, 2019.
HUNGERFORD, D. et al. Early impact of rotavirus vaccination in a large paediatric hospital in the UK. Journal of Hospital Infection, v. 93, n. 2, p. 117–120, 2016.
KAUFMAN, H. W.; CHEN, Z. Trends in Laboratory Rotavirus Detection: 2003 to 2014.
PEDIATRICS, v. 138, n. 4, p. e20161173–e20161173, 2016.
KOLLARITSCH, H. et al. Rotavirus vaccines: a story of success. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 21, n. 8, p. 735–743, 2015.
KOMOTO, S. et al. Reassortment of Human and Animal Rotavirus Gene Segments in Emerging DS-1-Like G1P Rotavirus Strains. PLOS ONE, v. 11, n. 2, p. e0148416, 2016.
KOUKOU, D. et al. Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in a Neonatal Unit of a Greek Tertiary Hospital: Clinical Characteristics and Genotypes. PLOS ONE, v. 10, n. 7, p. e0133891, 2015.
LINHARES, A. C. et al. Burden and typing of rotavirus group A in Latin America and the Caribbean: systematic review and meta-analysis. Reviews in Medical Virology, v. 21, n. 2, p. 89–109, 2011.
LINHARES, A. C.; BRESEE, J. S. Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America. Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, v. 8, n. 5, p. 305–331, 2000.
LIU, L. et al. Epidemiological aspects of rotavirus and adenovirus in hospitalized children with diarrhea: a 5-year survey in Beijing. BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 1, p. 508, 2016a.
LIU, Y. et al. Glycan Specificity of P Rotavirus and Comparison with Those of Related P Genotypes. Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 21, p. 9983–9996, 2016b.
LOBZIN, Y. V. et al. Burden of Childhood Rotavirus Disease in the Outpatient Setting of the Russian Federation. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, v. 36, n. 5, p. 472–476, 2017.
LUCHS, A.; TIMENETSKY, M. DO C. S. T. Group A rotavirus gastroenteritis: post-vaccine era, genotypes and zoonotic transmission. Einstein (São Paulo), v. 14, n. 2, p. 278–287, 2016.
LUNDGREN, O. Role of the Enteric Nervous System in the Fluid and Electrolyte Secretion of Rotavirus Diarrhea. Science, v. 287, n. 5452, p. 491–495, 2000.
MANDILE, M. G. et al. Surveillance of group A Rotavirus in Buenos Aires 2008–2011, long lasting circulation of G2P strains possibly linked to massive monovalent vaccination in the region. Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 60, n. 3, p. 282–289, 2014.
MARTELLA, V. et al. Zoonotic aspects of rotaviruses. Veterinary Microbiology, v. 140, n. 3–4, p. 246–255, 2010.
MARTÍNEZ, M. et al. Predominance of rotavirus G2P and emergence of G12P strains in Asunción, Paraguay, 2006–2007. Archives of Virology, v. 155, n. 4, p. 525–533, 2010.
MARTON, S. et al. Whole genome sequencing of a rare rotavirus from archived stool sample demonstrates independent zoonotic origin of human G8P strains in Hungary. Virus Research, v. 227, p. 96–103, 2017.
MAST, T. C. et al. Burden of Childhood Rotavirus Disease on Health Systems in the United States. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, v. 29, n. 2, p. e19–e25, 2010.
MASUKAWA, M. DE L. T. et al. Intervention analysis of introduction of rotavirus vaccine on hospital admissions rates due to acute diarrhea. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, v. 30, n. 10, p. 2101–2111, 2014.
MATTHIJNSSENS, J. et al. VP6-sequence-based cutoff values as a criterion for rotavirus species demarcation. Archives of Virology, v. 157, n. 6, p. 1177–1182, 2012.
MOTAYO, B. O.; ADENIJI, A. J.; FANEYE, A. O. FIRST MOLECULAR DETECTION AND VP7 (G) GENOTYPING OF GROUP A ROTAVIRUS BY SEMI-NESTED RT-PCR FROM SEWAGE IN NIGERIA. Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo, v. 58, n. 0, p. 74, 2016.
MOUSSA, A. et al. Distribution of rotavirus VP7 and VP4 genotypes circulating in Tunisia from 2009 to 2014: Emergence of the genotype G12. Journal of Medical Microbiology, v. 65, n. 9, p. 1028–1037, 2016.
MUHSEN, K. et al. Incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis hospitalizations and genotypes, before and five years after introducing universal immunization in Israel. Vaccine, v. 34, n. 48, p. 5916–5922, 2016.
NAKAGOMI, T. et al. G8 rotaviruses with conserved genotype constellations detected in Malawi over 10 years (1997-2007) display frequent gene reassortment among strains co-circulating in humans. Journal of General Virology, v. 94, n. Pt_6, p. 1273–1295, 2013.
NAKAGOMI, T. et al. Whole-genome characterisation of G12P rotavirus strains possessing two distinct genotype constellations co-circulating in Blantyre, Malawi, 2008. Archives of Virology, v. 162, n. 1, p. 213–226, 2016.
NGUYEN, T. H. et al. Evidence of multiple reassortment events of feline-to-human rotaviruses based on a rare human G3P rotavirus isolated from a patient with acute gastroenteritis. Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, v. 46, p. 53–59, 2016.
OUERMI, D. et al. Molecular Epidemiology of Rotavirus in Children under Five in Africa (2006-2016): A Systematic Review. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, v. 20, n. 2, p. 59–69, 2017.
PATEL, M. M. et al. Global Seasonality of Rotavirus Disease. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, v. 32, n. 4, p. e134–e147, 2013.
PELÁEZ-CARVAJAL, D. et al. Characterization of rotavirus genotypes before and after the introduction of a monovalent rotavirus vaccine in Colombia. Journal of Medical Virology, v. 86, n. 6, p. 1083–1086, 2014.
PITZER, V. E. et al. Did Large-Scale Vaccination Drive Changes in the Circulating Rotavirus Population in Belgium? Scientific Reports, v. 5, n. 1, p. 18585, 2015.
PRADHAN, G. N.; WALIMBE, A. M.; CHITAMBAR, S. D. Molecular characterization of emerging G9P rotavirus strains possessing a rare E6 NSP4 or T1 NSP3 genotype on a genogroup-2 backbone using a refined classification framework. Journal of General Virology, v. 97, n. 12, p. 3139–3153, 2016.
PRASAD, B. V. V. et al. Three-dimensional structure of rotavirus. Journal of Molecular Biology, v. 199, n. 2, p. 269–275, 1988.
RIBAS, M. DE LOS A. et al. Emergence of G9 as a predominant genotype of human rotaviruses in Cuba. Journal of Medical Virology, v. 83, n. 4, p. 738–744, 2011.
RIXON, F.; TAYLOR, P.; DESSELBERGER, U. Rotavirus RNA Segments Sized by Electron Microscopy. Journal of General Virology, v. 65, n. 1, p. 233–239, 1984.
ROCZO-FARKAS, S. et al. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program Annual Report, 2016. [s.l.] Communicable Diseases Intelligence (CDI), 2017. Disponível em: <https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/cdi4104-k>. Acesso em: 24 out. 2019.
ROCZO-FARKAS, S.; COWLEY, D.; BINES, J. E. Australian Rotavirus Surveillance Program: Annual Report, 2017. Communicable Diseases Intelligence, v. 43, 2019.
SALGADO, E. N.; UPADHYAYULA, S.; HARRISON, S. C. Single-Particle Detection of Transcription following Rotavirus Entry. Journal of Virology, v. 91, n. 18, 2017.
SCHNEPF, N. et al. Rearrangements of Rotavirus Genomic Segment 11 Are Generated during Acute Infection of Immunocompetent Children and Do Not Occur at Random. Journal of Virology, v. 82, n. 7, p. 3689–3696, 2008.
STEELE, A. D. et al. Incidence of rotavirus gastroenteritis by age in African, Asian and European children: Relevance for timing of rotavirus vaccination. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, v. 12, n. 9, p. 2406–2412, 2016.
STEYER, A. et al. Molecular characterization of rotavirus strains from pre- and post-vaccination periods in a country with low vaccination coverage: The case of Slovenia. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 28, p. 413–425, 2014.
TAPISIZ, A. et al. Rotavirus infections in children in Turkey: A systematic review. Reviews in Medical Virology, v. 29, n. 1, p. e2020, 2018.
TROJNAR, E. et al. Identification of an avian group A rotavirus containing a novel VP4 gene with a close relationship to those of mammalian rotaviruses. Journal of General Virology, v. 94, n. 1, p. 136–142, 2013.
TROUPIN, C. et al. Rotavirus Rearranged Genomic RNA Segments Are Preferentially Packaged into Viruses Despite Not Conferring Selective Growth Advantage to Viruses. PLoS ONE, v. 6, n. 5, p. e20080, 2011.
TSUGAWA, T.; HOSHINO, Y. Whole genome sequence and phylogenetic analyses reveal human rotavirus G3P strains Ro1845 and HCR3A are examples of direct virion transmission of canine/feline rotaviruses to humans. Virology, v. 380, n. 2, p. 344–353, 2008.
VIZZI, E. et al. Human rotavirus strains circulating in Venezuela after vaccine introduction: predominance of G2P and reemergence of G1P. Virology Journal, v. 14, n. 1, p. 58, 2017.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO). Global Rotavirus Information and Surveillance Bulletin. [s.l.] Rotavirus surveillance data reporting period: January - December 2010, 2011. Disponível em: <https://www.who.int/immunization/sage/3_Final_RV_bulletin_Jan_Dec_2010_Data_nov11.pdf>. Acesso em: 24 out. 2019.
WYLIE, K. M.; WEINSTOCK, G. M.; STORCH, G. A. Emergence of Rotavirus G12P in St. Louis During the 2012–2013 Rotavirus Season. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, v. 4, n. 4, p. e84–e89, 2014.
ZÁRATE, S. et al. Interaction of Rotaviruses with Hsc70 during Cell Entry Is Mediated by VP5. Journal of Virology, v. 77, n. 13, p. 7254–7260, 2003.
ZHANG, S. et al. Epidemiology and genetic diversity of group A rotavirus in acute diarrhea patients in pre-vaccination era in southwest China. Journal of Medical Virology, v. 89, n. 1, p. 71–78, 2017.